Дослідження Чорнівського городища першої половини ХІІІ ст. у 2012-2014 рр.
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To one of the most studied ancient monuments watershed of the Upper Prut and Middle Dniester refers settlement (remnants of feudal fortified manor), which is located at a distance of 5 km south of the village Chornivka. In historiography, it is known as Chornivka hillfort. Study settlement began in 1999 and continues to date. According to a new period of excavations monuments significantly refined ts planning, functional identity revealed some structures defined their chronology and dating, found more than a thousand individual finds. In the Chornivka hillfort in 2012-2014 continued scientific research and rescue. The studies were found objects of material and spiritual culture, including the findings of ceramics, glass, ferrous and nonferrous metals, armaments, christian religious symbols, jewelry, numismatic materials, household items and more. Their comprehensive analysis and interpretation devoted to this publication. The most numerous ceramic material presented. This includes about 200 pieces of kitchen and tableware. According to the classification by M. Malevska ceramic material from the settlement refers to types I, II and IV. In addition, the pottery should include numerous fragments of amphorae, clay vessels from the handle, spindle whorl and one whole and one fragmented miniature vessels with glaze yellow-green color on the inner and outer walls. In 2012-2014 was found a significant number of products of ferrous and nonferrous metals. Thus, traditional finds on the site is the finding of locks, their mechanisms and keys. In 2012-2014 was discovered three two-cylinder iron padlocks. During the research hillfort were also found with two knives heft to handle. They belong to the kitchen. They are characterized by a straight handle. It is also important findings fire strikers. In 2012-2014 were found two instances. During the research hillfort in room № 3 was detected nail cap of broad and rectangular rod. To products from metal, which occurred during the research hillfort, should include iron and bronze fishing hooks. An important discovery, which happened in the room № 27 is pointed iron rod with a rounded profile and a ring on the end. In our opinion, this type of product could be used as forks. In 2012-2014 were discovered quite important finds of armaments as distant and close combat. Thus, in the Chornivka hillfort was first found part of a medieval sword, namely head pommel handle, as well as 15 arrowheads, which, in total, dating from the XII-XIII centuries. Traditional to Chornivka hillfort is finding parts cingulate headset. In 2012-2014 was found two buckles and one fibula clasp (?). Also found a significant amount of jewelry. Thus, the findings are traditional wired ear-rings, rare finds beads decorated granulation and bronze ring with notches. In 2012 on the hillfort there was a suspension lenticular shape of rock crystal wickerwork frame with white metal (silver?) with an eye for hanging. Frame decorated with filigree pattern. By jewelry should also include the findings of 2 bronze and 7 glass bracelets. Traditional to Chornivka hillfort is finding items christian religious symbols. The most important findings should include encolpion. He was found at the rooms № 20-21. Cross cast, made of bronze and has two wings composed of small tightly relief images. The next discovery occurred in the vicinity of the rooms № 25-26. It is represented by the left shutter icon-complex trapezoidal shape with two-way relief. It is made of bronze. On the inside placed standing figure of the holy warrior with a spear in his left hand on the outside — half cross. Valuable is that the fragment in complex images armaments as defense and offensive, spear, armor, sword and vambrace possible. For iconography suggests that a huge number of all the saints, it would probably be most Saints Theodore Stratelates or Theodore Tyron (Theodore of Amasea). Other rare items include christian religious symbols side-damaged leaf icon complex, made of bronze, two-way trapezoidal shape with a relief image of the pair of standing male figures in typical clothes and with a halo over his head and cross-lining of the Crucifixion on the front side and two on the back rods. In 2012-2014 was discovered quite important numismatic material submitted truncated septangular and perforated byzantine coin. Thus, the result of research Chornivka hillfort in 2012-2014, revealed a number of items of historical and cultural significance. Findings clarify the chronological framework of Chornivka hillfort existence and allow new position reveal its importance for economic, social and cultural development of the Kievan Rus’ people of the region.