Основні вимоги до навчання елементів грамоти дітей дошкільного віку
Рудницька-Юрійчук, Ірина Романівна
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The modern rhythm of life, the growth of scientific and technical progress, new programs and learning technologies lead to an increase in the requirements for preparing preschool children for schooling. One of the main moments in a person's life is learning to read. The question of reading and writing skills formation in preschool children today worries many scientists, practicing teachers, and parents. Loving parents strive to raise their child in such a way that in the future he/she will become an educated person with a possible career perspective. The first step on this path is obtaining quality preschool education. However, parents of preschool children often try to teach their children to read and write as early as possible, so they offer them a large number of exercises and tasks. As a result, children get tired quickly and, unfortunately, lose interest in obtaining knowledge. It is necessary to choose the right path together with the parents and to adjust them to the proper mode of joint activity. According to Natalia Havrysh, it is not easy for children to master literacy. Therefore, teachers divide training into several stages, most of which appear during the period of school education. However, in order for children to successfully master school science, it is important to familiarize them with the basics of literacy and form the appropriate speech competence already in the preschool education institution . The requirements of the currently active preschool programs include mandatory basic knowledge for the preschool child from the basics of literacy. It is important that the teacher not only introduces pupils to sounds and letters, but also is able to inculcate in children a "sense of language", an understanding of the laws and principles of its structure, as well as the ability to use it. Modern elementary school requires first-grade students to have well-developed phonemic hearing i.e. the ability to distinguish sounds in words; match the selected sound with a letter as its graphic image; carry out sound and syllabic analysis of words and sentences, code the sound by letter; combine one letter with another and pronounce it accordingly, recoding the letters into a sound or syllable; read words, simple sentences and texts. Of course, such skills are not formed from "nothing". During the preschool stage, important purposeful work is carried out on the formation of such skills, which would become a solid foundation for the necessary reading and writing skills in the future.