Культурний шок як етап діалогу культур: міжетнічні аспекти
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The article deals with the phenomenon of cultural shock, which is the inevitable stage of the dialogue of cultures. The epoch of globalization with mixing and dissolving of cultures has put this problem especially acute. Currently, the problem of "cultural shock" ("stress of acculturation", "cultural fatigue") attracts the attention of mainly sociologists or psychologists. At the same time, researchers are usually limited to the synchronic section and the focus is only on migrants. The author of this article maintains a historical and cultural approach. Cultural shock phenomenon has arisen long before modern globalization processes and can manifest itself in different ways: the collapse of “role expectations”, loss of status in the society, religious conflict, ethnocentrism, etc. During the formation of each person, the process of his inculturation takes place, which includes the adoption of the norms and values of a certain ethnic group. They become a reference point. Collision with a different axiological scale may cause admiration at first, however, quickly gives way to bewilderment and rejection, as far as it requires breaking the already established worldview. A cultural shock is an interpersonal conflict. Nevertheless, it can lead to a negative opinion and the formation of incorrect stereotypes about an entire people. The aim of this study is a review of the historical nature and mechanisms of cultural shock with an emphasis on inter-ethnic interaction. The article gives a detailed analysis of the origins of the formation of xenophobia in a broad sense and distrust of the Alien, which are often rooted in different axiological systems. This approach allows in-depth perception of this phenomenon in its diachrony. From the author’s point of view, it cannot be solved via only cross-cultural trainings, that are often superficial. More effective way to solve the problem would be a comprehensive cultural and educational work. The main idea of the articles is that overcoming ethnocentrism can often lead to the loss of its own cultural identity. A partial or complete assimilation and loss of one’s own ethnic identity often comes out. At the same time, the desire to preserve it often ends with the impossibility of intercultural communication and ghettoization. Indifference to this problem complicates the construction of a dialogue of cultures, which is essential under the circumstances of a “global village”.